Citation & Formatting guidelines



  • Text should be double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.

  • Page numbers in the header 

  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers.

Main body:

  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.

  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name.

  • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.

  • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.

Tables and figures:

  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.

  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.

  • Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.


  • Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) 

  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” and your first entry.

  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.

  • All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.

  • The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with a comma; for example, John Smith becomes Smith, John.

  • Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.

  • The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.

  • In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.

  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece.

  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries.

  • For two to three authors, write out all names.

  • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.

  • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title.

  • Write out publishers’ names in full.

  • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.

  • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”

  • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. If no DOI is available, provide a URL.

  • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).


In the main body:

  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.

  • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.

  •  If you cite the same source two or more times consecutively, the first reference should use a shortened citation which includes the author’s name, the source title, and the page number(s), and consecutive references to the same work may omit the source title and simply include the author and page number.

In the footnotes:

  • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).

  • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period.

  • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.

  • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.